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To study the life cycle of honeybee is still a challenge for scientists. Xenobiotics with long half-life of degradation are potentially hazardous for the larvae despite that they are not directly exposed in contrary to adult foraging honeybees. The crucial phase of larval development is the first six days after hatching when a worker larva grows exponentially and larvae are potentially exposed to xenobiotics via diet. Pesticide residues in larval diet/wax can potentially have adverse effects on larvae (e.g. growth delay), which may secondary inhibit colony development, health and overwintering success. 

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